Therefore each participant only experiences one condition. Also in. Therefore some of the differences between regular and non-regular gamblers could have been caused by the different machine.
Professor Griffiths has 30 PhD completions e. Michael Larkin, Dr. Jonathan Parke, Dr. Adrian Parke, Dr. Abby McCormack, Dr. Richard Wood, Dr. Michael Auer, Dr. Edo Shonin. Professor Griffiths also sits on and chairs many national and international committees and is a past chair of the European Association for the Study of Gambling and co-founder and former Chair of the charity GamCare.
Consultancy for over 30 gaming companies e. Find out more here OK. Home Mark Griffiths Professor. I got a 2 there? Non regular gamblers made significantly more verbalisations in questions relating to confusion and non-understanding, in statements relating to confusion and non understanding and miscellaneous utterances.
Although not significant, regular gamblers made more percentage verbalisations in the categories? Griffiths noted that regular gamblers did use a variety of heuristics although these were not abundant. Below is just a selection of these heuristics.
It must have paid out?. This fruity is not in a good mood? Illusions of control: This machine doesn? Based on the findings of the post-experimental semi-structured interview it was found that regular gamblers were more skill orientated than non-regular gamblers.
For example when asked the question? Is there any skill involved in playing a fruit machine?? In response to the question? How skilful do you think you are compared with the average person?? Non regular gamblers an the whole viewed themselves as? Griffiths argues that this study shows that regular fruit machine gamblers are not significantly more skilled on fruit machines than non regular gamblers and that regular gamblers believe that their activity is far more skilled than it actually is.
Interestingly regular gamblers were able to stay on the machines longer than non-regular gamblers suggesting that there are skilful aspects to fruit machine gambling. Griffiths suggests that many regular fruit machine gamblers know that they will lose every penny in the long run and they gamble to stay on the machine as long as possible with the least amount of money.
The study supports the argument that regular fruit machine users do use cognitive biases when gambling. Griffiths argues that although regular gamblers do make more irrational verbalisations he is cautious about whether such findings do explain that the difference between regular and non-regular gamblers. Griffiths argues that more research needs to be carried out to discover whether the choice of heuristics is the underlying cause of irrational gambling behaviour or whether the choice of heuristics are the symptoms of a deeper underlying cause such as personality defects.
Griffiths argues that knowledge of the heuristics gamblers use could be used to rehabilitate gamblers through cognitive behavioural modification. This would involve modifying the thought patterns of an individual in an attempt to moderate or stop their gambling. Griffiths has termed this technique? After this study participants were asked if they would like to listen to the recordings of their verbalisations.
Four participants did take up this offer and one of these participants who was diagnosed as a pathological gambler according to DSM-III-3 criteria was met at a later date. He reported that his gambling behaviour had ceased after taking part in the experiment and that a large factor in the cessation of his gambling was hearing the playback of his recording.
Hearing his verbalisations prompted him to examine and monitor his behaviour and through introspection he realised the futility of his own gambling. It was also found that many regular gamblers in the thinking aloud condition had periods where they did not make any verbalisations.
Griffiths suggests that this is because regular gamblers could operate the machine on? Griffiths calls this the? A major strength of this study was the amount and type of data collected. The behavioural data such as fruit machine gambling was quantitative and this allows for comparisons and statistical analysis to be made.
Furthermore the qualitative data collected from the verbalisations were quantified using content analysis again allowing statistical comparisons to be made. The transcripts and the post experimental semi-structured interview also provided qualitative data allowing the research greater insights into the heuristics used by the participants. The thinking aloud method can be seen as a very useful way of assessing private thought processes as it allows the research to capture some of the thoughts of the participants as they actually gambled.
However no method is perfect and it is doubtful whether this technique did capture all of the thoughts of the participants for example some participants may have censured their thoughts, would not be able to put into words their thoughts and of course their were periods of time up to 30 seconds when the participants were silent,.
Griffiths did recognise that there was a problem with the inter-rater reliability of the coding system. Griffiths completed the coding of the verbalisations himself and had a second researcher code the same results but the inter-rater reliability was low. It was argued that this was primarily due to the second rater? Inter-rater reliability was also tested using a regular fruit machine gambler but this again proved difficult as the rater did not know the context in which the verbalisations were made.
The study was carried out in an actual amusement arcade on a typical fruit machine which of course improves the ecological validity of the study. Allowing participants to either keep any profits or extend their gambling time also increases the ecological validity of the study.
However, perhaps only allowing the gamblers 30 plays may not have been enough to demonstrate any skills that they may have as fruit machine skill might only become evident with prolonged play. There could be issues with demand characteristics in the study. The participants were aware they were being studied and may have responded when verbalising their thoughts, playing the fruit machine or responding to the interview in ways they thought the experimenter wanted them to behave.
There could also be issues with social desirability particularly with the regular gamblers. In a later article Griffiths notes that some gamblers are dishonest about their gambling behaviour and are subject to social desirability factors and may be dishonest about their gambling activities to researchers.
Although Griffith? As with all volunteer samples we can question whether the participants are representative. There was of course only one female in the regular gamblers condition although young males are far more likely to be involved in regular fruit machine gambling than females.
It would perhaps have been better to have matched the control group on gender. There was a problem in the study in that some of the regular gamblers did not want to play on the chosen fruit machine and instead chose to play on their favourite one. Therefore some of the differences between regular and non-regular gamblers could have been caused by the different machine.
Griffiths, M. British Journal of Psychology. Search Holah. This experiment uses an independent measures design. An independent measures design consists of having different participants in each of the conditions. Therefore each participant only experiences one condition. A disadvantage of this design is lack of control of participant variables.
That is, any difference found between the performances of the participants in different conditions could be due to individual differences. Irrational verbalisations 1. Personification of the fruit machine, e. The machine likes me 2. Explaining away losses, e. I lost there because I wasn? Talking to the fruit machine, e. Nottingham Trent University online. Retrieved 5 March The gambling man? Mark Griffiths". The British Psychological Society online. The Guardian online.
Retrieved 10 March Right Casino interview - RightCasino. Retrieved 21 November Psychology Today online. A personal look at egomania". Mark Griffiths online. A brief look at teratophilia". Inside the world of pandrogyny". Journalisted online.
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