Gambling argumentative essay

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The lumber and food were transported by ships that had initially carried gold rush passengers and in many cases abandoned in the bay and could usually be bought cheap.

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Below follow topics that you can have fun with while persuading your audience. See this page for a full list of Fun Persuasive Speech Topics. Below are questions and statement topics that can be used to get your points across on a variety of topics. It is important to remember that there can be a fine line between funny and insulting.

So use wit and make it fun without insulting your audience. See this page for a full list of Funny Persuasive Speech Topics. We also have a page with Medical Topics. School is a whole new world, where students discover more about themselves and life around them. These are topics that students will most likely have to deal with at some point during their elementary, middle, and high school careers.

The following topics are for college students and about the many different aspects that they will deal with during their time in college. See this page for a full list of Great Speech Topics for Teens. See this page for a full list of History Speech Topics. Interesting topics will always have an audience glued to every word, even when they may disagree with your point of view.

Ultimately it is your job to persuade them that your view is in fact correct. See this page for a full list of Persuasive Interesting Speech Topics. See this page for a full list of Legal Speech Topics. See this page for a full list of Speech Topics about Politics. See this page for a full list of Psychology Speech Topics. See this page for a full list of Persuasive Science Speech Topics. See this page for a full list of Persuasive Society Speech Topics.

Some sports topics can quickly turn into an argument between fans so keep in mind that special care should be taken with some of the suggested topics. The term soccer was used to distinguished between soccer and American football, feel free to use the term football for those countries that do not use the term soccer. Ships could take this route year round and the first ships started leaving East Coast ports as early as November From the East Coast, a sailing voyage around the southern tip of South America would typically take five to eight months—averaging about days by standard sailing ship.

When the much faster clipper ships began to be used starting in early , they could complete this journey in an average of only days; but they typically carried few passengers. They specialized in high value freight. Nearly all freight to California was carried by regular sailing vessels—they were slow but the cheapest way to ship cargo. Starting about many travelers to California took steamboats to Panama or Nicaragua, crossed the Isthmus of Panama or Nicaragua and caught another steamboat to California.

Marysville, California etc. This trip could be done in 40—60 days—depending on connections. Those who took the California Trail usually left Missouri River towns in early April and arrived in California — days later—late August or early September. Mostly, farmers etc. About half the Argonauts to California came by wagon on one of these routes.

Starting in before gold in California was even confirmed, Congress had contracted with the Pacific Mail Steamship Company to set up regular paddle steamer packet ship , mail, passenger and cargo routes in the Pacific Ocean. Once the California Gold Rush was confirmed, other paddle steamers soon followed on both the Pacific and Atlantic routes. Steam powered tugboats started working in the San Francisco Bay soon after this. Agriculture expanded throughout the state to meet the food needs of the new settlers.

Agriculture was soon found to be limited by the difficulty of finding enough water in the right places to grow irrigated crops. Winter wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the spring was one early crop that grew well without irrigation. At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no written law regarding property rights in the goldfields, and a system of "staking claims" was developed by the miners. The Gold Rush also had negative effects: Native Americans were pushed off of traditional lands and massacred [60] and gold mining caused environmental harm.

In the early years of the California Gold Rush, placer mining methods were used, from panning to "cradles" and "rockers" or "long-toms", to diverting the water from an entire river into a sluice alongside the river, and then digging for gold in the gravel down to the rocky river bottom. This placer gold had been freed by the slow disintegration, over geological time, that freed the gold from its ore.

This free gold was typically found in the cracks in the rocks found at the bottom of the gravel found in rivers or creeks, as the gold typically worked down through the gravel or collected in stream bends or bottom cracks. This gold greatly increased the available money in the United States, which was on the gold standard at that time—the more gold you had, the more you could buy.

As the easier gold was recovered, the mining became much more capital and labor-intensive as the hard rock quartz mining, hydraulic mining, and dredging mining evolved. Both during the Gold Rush and in the decades that followed, hard-rock mining wound up being the single-largest source of gold produced in the Gold Country. By , the U. Navy started making plans for a west coast navy base at Mare Island Naval Shipyard. The greatly increased population, along with the new wealth of gold, caused: The sudden growth in population caused many more towns to be built throughout Northern, and later Southern, California and the few existing towns to be greatly expanded.

The first cities started showing up as San Francisco and Sacramento exploded in population. Most California Indians are thought to have been located near the coast, the same areas the Spanish Missions were established. Since California Indians had no agriculture before it was introduced by the Franciscan padres, they were strictly hunter-gather society tribes which could not support large populations—large populations require agriculture. During the Spanish and Mexican California occupation period nearly all coastal tribes south of San Francisco were induced to join a mission.

So many Mission Indians died from exposure to harsh conditions at the missions and diseases like measles, diphtheria, smallpox, syphilis, etc. As reported by Krell, as of December 31, , the mission Franciscan padres from to had performed a combined total of 87, baptisms and 24, marriages, and recorded 63, deaths.

The Indians typically worked at one of the four Spanish pueblos as servants or at the newly established ranchos for room and board or attempted to join other tribes in the interior. The new ranchos occupied nearly all their original tribal territories. The new wave of immigration that was sparked by the gold rush would continue to have a disastrous impact on California's native population, which continued to precipitously decline mainly due to Eurasian diseases to which they had no natural immunity.

There were a number of massacres, including the Yontoket Massacre , the Bloody Island Massacre at Clear Lake, and the Old Shasta Massacre, in which hundreds of indigenous people were killed. Thousands more are thought to have died due to disease. Combined with a low birth rate for Indian women the Indian population precipitously declined. Between and , the state of California paid around 1.

These "private military forays" were involved in several of the above-mentioned massacres, and sometimes participated in the "wanton killing" of Native peoples. The first governor of California, Peter Burnett , openly called for the extermination of the Indian tribes, and in reference to the violence against California's Native population, he said, "That a war of extermination will continue to be waged between the two races until the Indian race becomes extinct, must be expected.

While we cannot anticipate the result with but painful regret, the inevitable destiny of the race is beyond the power and wisdom of man to avert. Several scholars, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo , have described the actions of the California government as a genocide. In subsequent decades after , the native population of more than tribes were gradually placed in a series of reservations and rancherias, which were often very small and isolated and lacked adequate natural resources or funding from the government to sustain the populations living on them in the hunter-gathering style they were used to living.

Naval Activity including: Pacific Squadron , Mexican—American War. Also included are sections on California naval installations, California shipbuilding, California shipwrecks, and California lighthouses. Tribes in northwest California practiced slavery long before the arrival of Europeans. Some returned east with enough gold to purchase their relatives.

Nevertheless, as per the Act for the Government and Protection of Indians, a number of Native Americans were formally enslaved in the state, a practice that continued until the mids, when California changed its laws to conform to the 14th Amendment. The possibility of splitting off Southern California as a territory or a state was rejected by the national government, and the idea was dead by when patriotic fervor swept California after the attack on Fort Sumter.

California's involvement in the American Civil War included sending gold east, recruiting or funding a limited number of combat units, maintaining numerous fortifications and sending troops east, some of whom became famous. Following the split in the Democratic Party in , Republican supporters of Lincoln took control of the state in , minimizing the influence of the large southern population.

Their great success was in obtaining a Pacific railroad land grant and authorization to build the Central Pacific as the western half of the transcontinental railroad. California was settled primarily by Midwestern and Southern farmers, miners, and businessmen. Though the southerners and some Californios tended to favor the Confederacy, the state did not have slavery, and they were generally powerless during the war itself.

They were prevented from organizing and their newspapers were closed down by denying them the use of the mail. Former Sen. William M. Gwin , a Confederate sympathizer, was arrested and fled to Europe. Nearly all of the men who volunteered as Union soldiers stayed in the West, within the Department of the Pacific , to guard forts and other facilities, occupy secessionist regions, and fight Indians in the state and the western territories.

The California Column then spent most of the remainder of the war fighting hostile Indians in the area. Even before Mexico gained control of Alta California in , the onerous Spanish rules in effect from to against trading with foreigners began to break down as the declining Spanish fleet couldn't enforce their no trading policies. The Californios, with essentially no industries or manufacturing capabilities, were eager to trade for new commodities, glass, hinges, nails, finished goods, luxury goods and other merchandise.

The cattle and horses that provided the hides, tallow and horns essentially grew wild. The Californios' hides, tallow and horns provided the necessary trade articles for a mutually beneficial trade. The first United States, English and Russian trading ships began showing up in California before Essentially all the cost of the California government what little there was was paid for by these tariffs custom duties.

Ships after provided easy, cheap, links among the coastal towns within California and on routes leading there. Nearly all cargo to California came by sailing ship until the completion of the first Transcontinental Railroad in This route averaged about days by "standard" sailing ship or about days by Clipper.

One of the main problems that occurred during the gold rush was the lack of a paying cargo for ships leaving California. Food, supplies and passengers were the main cargo coming to California; but there were only a limited return trade of returning passengers, mail and gold. Many of the sailing ships that arrived in San Francisco Bay were abandoned there or converted into warehouses or landfill.

The Panama and Nicaragua routes provided a shortcut for getting from the East Coast to California and a brisk maritime passenger trade developed, featuring fast paddle steamers from cities on the east coast, New Orleans, Louisiana and Havana Cuba to the Caribbean mouth of the Chagres River in Panama and the mouth of San Juan River in Nicaragua. After when the Panama Railroad was completed the Nicaragua route largely shut down.

The United States was now a Pacific Ocean power. Starting in the U. In William H. Their venture happened to be well-timed, as the discovery of gold in California in January created a rush of emigrants wanting to cross the Isthmus of Panama and go on to California or return home. Cholera , yellow fever , and malaria took a deadly toll on the Railroad workers, and despite the continual importation of large numbers of new workers, there were times when the work stalled for simple lack of alive and semi-fit workers.

All railroad supplies and nearly all foodstuffs had to be imported from thousands of miles away, greatly adding to the cost of construction. Only a few were going all the way to California. She was loaded with about gold seeking passengers; twice the number of passengers it had been designed for. In San Francisco all her passengers and crew except the captain and one man deserted the ship and it would take the Captain two more months to gather a much better paid return crew to return to Panama city an establish the route they had been contracted for.

Many more paddle steamers were soon running from the east coast cities to the Chagres River in Panama and the San Juan River in Nicaragua. The trip to the east coast could be executed after about in as short as 40 days if all ship connections could be met with a minimum of waiting. Steamboats plied the Bay Area and the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers that flowed nearer the goldfields, moving passengers and supplies from San Francisco to Sacramento , Marysville and Stockton, California —the three main cities supplying the gold fields.

The city of Stockton, on the lower San Joaquin, quickly grew from a sleepy backwater to a thriving trading center, the stopping-off point for miners headed to the gold fields in the foothills of the Sierra. Rough ways such as the Millerton Road which later became the Stockton - Los Angeles Road [76] quickly extended the length of the valley and were served by mule teams and covered wagons. During the peak years of the gold rush, the river in the Stockton area was reportedly crowded with hundreds of abandoned oceangoing craft, whose crew had deserted for the gold fields.

The multitude of idle ships was such a blockade that at several occasions they were burned just to clear a way for riverboat traffic. Soon a system of wagon roads, bridges, ferries and toll roads were set up many of them maintained by tolls collected from the users.

Large freight wagons pulled by up to 10 mules replaced pack trains, and toll roads built and kept passable by the tolls made it easier to get to the mining camps, enabling express companies to deliver firewood, lumber, food, equipment, clothes, mail, packages, etc.

Later when communities developed in Nevada some steamboats were even used to haul cargo up the Colorado River as high as where Lake Mead in Nevada is today. It carried passengers and U. Mail from Memphis, Tennessee and St. Louis, Missouri to San Francisco, California.

The Butterfield Overland Stage Company had more than people in its employ, had relay stations, head of stock and Concord stagecoaches in service at one time. With the prospects of the civil war looming the Butterfield stage contract was terminated and the stage route to California rerouted.

An Act of Congress , approved March 2, , discontinued this route and service ceased June 30, On the same date the central route from St. Highway 50 to California since it was the fastest and only route that was then kept open in winter across the Sierra Nevada U. Joseph, Missouri , to Placerville, California , went into effect. News paper correspondents reported that they had a preview of "hell" when they took the trip.

Once cargo was moved off the ocean and rivers it nearly always transported by horse or ox drawn wagons—still true till about When there was not a wagon trail the cargo was shifted to mule pack trains or carried on the backs of the miners. Lumber to build new homes, sluice boxes, etc. However, California has a lot of native timber and even as early as there were saw mills set up to turn some of this timber into lumber.

Food was initially imported from any and all west coast ports from Hawaii, Oregon or Mexico where it could be obtained. The lumber and food were transported by ships that had initially carried gold rush passengers and in many cases abandoned in the bay and could usually be bought cheap. The many goods the gold miners needed for a "modest" s lifestyle were nearly always hauled by horse, mule or ox drawn wagons.

Wheat and timber were early products from Oregon and the Columbia River area that could be economically imported. Soon it was found that some types of spring wheat could be planted in the fall in California and the mild winter with its rains would allow good crops to be harvested in the spring without irrigation. California in the s became the foremost wheat producer in the U. Other crops in California were usually found to be much more profitable and California joined the rest of the nation in importing most of its wheat from farms in the midwest.

The year saw the close of Mexican control over Alta California, this period also marked the beginning of the rancheros' greatest prosperity. The Californio rancho society before had few resources except large herds of Longhorn cattle which grew almost wild in California. The Ranchos produced the largest cowhide called California Greenbacks and tallow business in North America by killing and skinning their cattle and cutting off their fat.

The cowhides were staked out to dry and the tallow was put in large cowhide bags. The rest of the animal was left to rot or feed the California grizzly bears then common in California. The traders who traded for the hides, tallow and sometimes horns hauled them back to the east coast where the hides were used to make a large variety of leather products, most of the tallow was used for making candles and the horns were mostly used for making buttons.

A trading trip typically took over two years. Dana mentions that they also took back a large shipment of California longhorn horns. Horns were used to make a large number of items in this time period. The market for beef dramatically changed with the onset of the Gold Rush , as thousands of miners, businessmen and other fortune seekers flooded into northern California. From about to about the rancheros enjoyed the "golden" days of Hispanic California. The largely illiterate ranchero owners lost nearly all their land to a few bad years for cattle in the s and the many mortgages they had taken out to finance a "prosperous" life style and could no longer pay back.

The Pony Express used much of this same route across Nevada and the Sierras in These combined stage and Pony Express stations along the Central Route across Utah and Nevada were joined by the first transcontinental telegraph stations completed 24 October The Pony express terminated soon after the telegraph was established.

After the first transcontinental railroad was completed in , the telegraph lines along the railroad tracks became the main line, since the required relay stations, lines and telegraph operators were much easier to supply and maintain along the railroad. The telegraph lines that diverged from the railroad lines or significant population centers were largely abandoned.

After the s, stagecoaches provided the primary form of local passenger and mail transportation between inland towns that were not connected to a railroad, with sailing ships and paddle wheel steamships connecting port cities. Freight wagons still hauled nearly all cargo. Even when railroads arrived, stages were essential to link more remote areas to the railheads. Top of the line in quality, with crowded discomfort, was the nine-passenger Concord stagecoach , but the cheaper, rougher "mud wagons" were also in general use.

The Wells Fargo company contracted with independent lines to deliver its express packages and transport gold bullion and coins. Stagecoach travel was usually uncomfortable as passengers were often crowded together in limited space, dust pouring through open windows from rough unpaved roads, rough rides, un-bathed fellow passengers and poorly sprung steel tired stagecoaches.

Some drivers were famous for their skill in driving six horses down winding roads at top speed, only rarely overturning. Bandits found robbing coaches a profitable if risky venture as they may be shot or hanged if caught.

California's first railroad was built from Sacramento to Folsom, California starting in February By there were railroad connections to Oakland, California and via a train ferry to San Francisco, California from Sacramento—effectively connecting all the major cities in California then to the east coast. Downey and Phineas Banning. This route to Los Angeles followed the Tehachapi Loop , a 0.

Although most of California's railroads started off as short line railroads the period from to saw a series of railroad mergers and acquisitions that led to the creation of four major inter-state railroads servicing the state the Southern Pacific Railroad , Union Pacific Railroad , Santa Fe Railroad and Western Pacific Railroad.

Each of these railroads controlled one and Southern Pacific controlled two of the transcontinental railroads which linked California with states farther East. The railroads moved freight and passengers in large quantities and allowed the state's economy and population to expand rapidly during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

By the s the construction of electric railroads had begun in California and by the early 20th century several systems existed to serve California's largest cities. By the s, Los Angeles' Pacific Electric system was the largest electric railroad in the world. The expansion of American railroads peaked in the s and during the Great Depression many railroads suffered financial difficulties which led to some railroad bankruptcies.

World War II caused a surge in the use of California's railroads but with the government funded construction of the Interstate Highway System in the s and the expansion of the U. The s saw the end of private passenger railroads in California, the creation of a national passenger railroad Amtrak and the Bay Area 's opening of the BART rail-system.

In the s and s commuter railroads where established in the Bay Area Caltrain and Altamont Corridor Express , Los Angeles Metrolink and San Diego Coaster and light rail networks were built or expanded in most urban areas. The early s saw the expansion in usage of passenger rail service and in voters approved plans for the construction of a high-speed rail network.

After , California continued to grow rapidly and soon became an agricultural and industrial power. The economy was widely based on specialty agriculture, oil, tourism, shipping, film, and after advanced technology such as aerospace and electronics industries — along with a significant military presence. The films and stars of Hollywood helped make the state the "center" of worldwide attention.

California became an American cultural phenomenon; the idea of the "California Dream" as a portion of the larger American Dream of finding a better life drew 35 million new residents from the start to the end of the 20th century — From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the history of the area of the US state. See also: History of California before , History of California to present , and Historical outline of California. Part of a series on the. Maritime Railroad Highways Slavery.

Main article: History of California through Indigenous peoples of California. Main articles: Conquest of California and Mexican—American War. California Gold Rush. Maritime history of California. History of slavery in California.

California in the American Civil War. History of rail transportation in California. History of California to present. Archived from the original on 26 October Retrieved 7 November Sugihara; Jan W. Van Wagtendonk; Kevin E. Thode, eds. Fire in California's Ecosystems. University of California Press. Before the Wilderness: Environmental Management by Native Californians. Menlo Park, California: Ballena Press. State of Change: Forgotten Landscapes of California. Berkeley, California: Kat Tending the Wild: A History of California: The Spanish Period , Macmillan Company , pp.

Orsi, Contested Eden: Four Directions Institute. Retrieved January 6, California Indians and Their Environment: An Introduction. University of California Press, Berkeley. Archived from the original on Archived from the original on 23 May Retrieved 25 February A History. New York: Modern Library , Chapter 2.

By Brown, Alan; "A description of distant roads: San Francisco Historical Information". City and County of San Francisco. Retrieved Monterey County Historical Society. Retrieved 12 November Record of Ships Arriving at California Ports from to ". Two Years Before the Mast: A Personal Narrative of Life at Sea.

Retrieved on Compiled from William Marvin Mason. The Census of A Demographic History of California. Menlo Park: Ballena Press, The California Missions: A Pictorial History ; p. The Missions of California , pp.

CA State Parks. XXII —, p.

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